Controllable Shape Synthesis for Digital Fabrication


Phd Manuscript


Read online (works best with Firefox or Safari):

Online Demos
Topopt Demo (Commands)
Keyboard Action Mouse Action
f toggle edition mode left Move box (edition mode)
a toggle optimization (animation) right Add box (edition mode)
o toggle 3D view middle Remove box (edition mode)
X clear/reset design left Pan view
+ increase volume max right Rotate view
- decrease volume max wheel Zoom view

Browser Support
  • Videos in the presentation are encoded in MP4/H.264. It should play fine on Firefox (on Linux, you may need to install GStreamer or FFmpeg). It appears to work fine on Safari as well.
  • On Firefox 51 (released on January 24, 2017), there seems to be a problem with video autoplay.
  • On Chrome and Opera, the layout is all over the place, so better stick to Firefox if possible.


The main goal of this thesis is to propose methods to synthesize shapes in a controllable manner, with the purpose of being fabricated. As 3D printers grow more accessible than ever, modeling software must now take into account fabrication constraints posed by additive manufacturing technologies. Consequently, efficient algorithms need to be devised to model the complex shapes that can be created through 3D printing. We develop algorithms for by-example shape synthesis that consider the physical behavior of the structure to fabricate. All the contributions of this thesis focus on the problem of generating complex shapes that follow geometric constraints and structural objectives.

In a first time, we focus on dealing with fabrication constraints, and propose a method for synthesizing efficient support structures that are well-suited for filament printers. In a second time, we take into account appearance control, and develop new by-example synthesis methods that mixes in a meaningful manner criteria on the appearance of the synthesized shapes, and constraints on their mechanical behavior. Finally, we present a highly scalable method to control the elastic properties of printed structures. We draw inspiration from procedural texture synthesis methods, and propose an efficient algorithm to synthesize printable microstructures with controlled elastic properties.

Video (in French)

The following presentation video was made for the IG-RV PhD Thesis Award in 2018:

List of Publications

  • Bridging the Gap: Automated Steady Scaffoldings for 3D Printing
    Jérémie Dumas, Jean Hergel and Sylvain Lefebvre
    ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) — Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2014
    Volume 33 Issue 4, July 2014
    Project HAL

  • By-Example Synthesis of Structurally Sound Patterns
    Jérémie Dumas, An Lu, Sylvain Lefebvre, Jun Wu, Christian Dick
    ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) — Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2015
    Volume 34 Issue 4, July 2015
    Project HAL

  • Structure and Appearance Optimization for Controllable Shape Design
    Jonàs Martínez, Jérémie Dumas, Sylvain Lefebvre, Li-Yi Wei
    ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) — Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2015
    Volume 34 Issue 6, December 2015
    Project HAL

  • Tight Printable Enclosures and Support Structures for Additive Manufacturing
    Samuel Hornus, Sylvain Lefebvre, Jérémie Dumas, Frédéric Claux
    Eurographics Workshop on Graphics for Digital Fabrication, 2016
    Project DOI

  • Procedural Voronoi Foams for Additive Manufacturing
    Jonàs Martínez, Jérémie Dumas, Sylvain Lefebvre
    ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) — Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2016
    Volume 35 Issue 4, July 2016
    Project HAL


  • 2018.12.12: Added abstract.
  • 2018.12.10: Added link to summary video (in French).
  • 2017.08.30: Fixed minor spelling mistakes in the French text.
  • 2017.03.20: Final version with acknowledgments + changes suggested by committee members.
  • 2017.02.01: Fixed minor typo + Added slides for the defense.
  • 2016.11.10: Updated the cover of the manuscript to better match the rules of the doctoral school.